A corresponding roster move will be made Tuesday, Rays manager Joe Maddon said.
"He did a great job and he really did help us get back in order for tomorrow," said Maddon.
The 25-year-old pitcher said prior to the game that he was grateful for the callup so quickly after being reinstated.
"I made a big mistake," Colome, who was 1-1 with a 2.25 ERA through three starts for the Rays in 2013, said through an interpreter. "I want everyone to know that I apologize to my teammates, the organization ... and everyone who has been by my side. I want to put it all behind me and do the best I can to help us win and move forward."
Despite the suspension and the layoff that came with it, Colome, who's ranked as the Rays' Rays' No. 5 prospect by MLB.com, said he feels physically ready to perform whatever duties are required of him, be it as a starter or in the bullpen.
"I feel good. I worked harder than I have in regular Spring Training, because I was able to isolate training, keep myself strong. ... I think I worked a lot to build my arm strength up. I feel good."
The promotion was made possible after Brandon Guyer went on the 15-day disabled list with a fractured left thumb, which he sustained in Sunday's 8-5 win over the Red Sox. Instead of bringing up a position player, the Rays chose a pitcher.
"We're challenged with pitching right now, just based on the length of our games," said Maddon pregame. "We needed someone that could provide length, or short, if that makes sense. We were not protected if this game [Monday] started off early with an injury, so we had to do something."
The timing of the callup was fortuitous, Maddon said, because Colome was due to start the same day in Triple-A, so he was fully stretched out and available.